Secondary Steelmaking (MATE482) Course Detail

Course Name Course Code Season Lecture Hours Application Hours Lab Hours Credit ECTS
Secondary Steelmaking MATE482 3 0 0 3 5
Pre-requisite Course(s)
Course Language English
Course Type N/A
Course Level Natural & Applied Sciences Master's Degree
Mode of Delivery
Learning and Teaching Strategies .
Course Coordinator
Course Lecturer(s)
Course Assistants
Course Objectives This course aims to give a detailed overview of secondary steelmaking
Course Learning Outcomes The students who succeeded in this course;
  • The basic principles of ladle metallurgy, deoxidation practices, degassing and decarburization of liquid steel (vacuum treatment), desulfurization in secondary steelmaking, inclusions and inclusion shape control, understanding the primary functions of secondary metallurgical processes (ladle furnace and vacuum degasser) in integrated or mini steel plants
Course Content History of secondary steelmaking and trends in steel quality demands, thermodynamic fundamentals, fluid flow in steel melts, kinetics of reactions among phases, deoxidation of liquid steel, degassing and decarburization of liquid steel, desulfurization in secondary steelmaking, phosphorus control in secondary metallurgy, nitrogen control in steelma

Weekly Subjects and Releated Preparation Studies

Week Subjects Preparation
1 Ironmaking and steelmaking (review). Principle functions of secondary steelmaking. BOF steelmaking. Chapter 1 of source [1], Chapter 11 of source [3], Chapter 8 of source [2], and related pages of other sources.
2 Thermodynamics and mechanism of C-O reaction, Oxidation of Si, Mn and P, Thermodynamics and kinetics of deoxidation. Chapter 8 of source [2], Chapter 5 of source [1], and related pages of other sources.
3 Secondary steelmaking (history). Important process control applications related to secondary steelmaking. Typical secondary steelmaking furnaces. Chapter 1 of source [1], and related pages of other sources.
4 Sulfur in steelmaking. Sulfur slag-metal distribution ratio. External (hot metal) desulfurization. Oxygen potential of steelmaking systems. Sulfide capacity. Ladle desulfurization. Chapter 7 of source [1], Chapter 11 of source [3], Chapter 9 of source [2], and related pages of other sources.
5 Kinetics of desulfurization reaction with top slag. Stirring energy. Injection metallurgy for desulfurization. The reactor model. Chapter 7 of source [1], and related pages of other sources.
6 Fluid flow in steel melts and kinetics of reactions among phases Chapter 3 & 4 of source [1], and related pages of other sources.
7 Midterm 1
8 Degassing and decarburization of liquid steel. Vacuum degassing & hydrogen and nitrogen. Vacuum degassing processes. Thermodynamics of reactions in vacuum degassing, side reactions & volatilization. Fluid flow and circulation rate in RH degassing. Chapter 6 of source [1], Chapter 9 of source [2], Chapter 11 of source [3], and related pages of other sources.
9 Kinetics of degassing and decarburization, Decarburization for ultra-low carbon (ULC) and stainless steel. Argon-oxygen decarburization. Chapter 6 of source [1], and related pages of other sources.
10 Phosphorus control in secondary steelmaking. Nitrogen control in steelmaking. Kinetics of desorption and absorption of nitrogen by liquid iron. Chapter 6 & 8 of source [1], and related pages of other sources.
11 Influence of inclusions on mechanical properties of steel. The identification of inclusions and cleanliness assessment. Origin of nonmetallic inclusions. Chapter 9 of source [1], Chapter 9 of source [2], and related pages of other sources.
12 Formation of inclusions during solidification. Inclusion modification (Ca-treatment). Inclusion modification by rare earth treatment of steel. Chapter 9 of source [1], Chapter 9 of source [2], and related pages of other sources.
13 Midterm 2
14 Gas absorption during tapping and teeming from surrounding atmosphere. Changes in temperature of molten steel during secondary steelmaking. Chill factors for ladle additions Chapter 8 of source [1], Chapter 9 of source [2], and related pages of other sources.
15 Steel plant refractories: Steelmaking refractories. Refractories for secondary steelmaking. Thermodynamic considerations of refractory stability and inertness. Chapter 10 of source [1], Chapter 4 of source [3], and related pages of other sources.
16 Clean steel technology: Deoxidation practice. Teeming practice. Tundish metallurgy for clean steel. Chapter 10 of source [1], and related pages of other sources.


Course Book 1. A Ghosh, Secondary Steelmaking, Principles and Applications, CRC Press LLC, Florida, 2001.
Other Sources 2. E.T. Turkdogan, “Fundamentals of Steelmaking”, The Institute of Materials, 1996.
3. The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition, Steelmaking & Refining Volume, The AISE Steel Foundation, 1998.
4. R.J. Fruehan, “Ladle Metallurgy, Principles and Practices”, 1985.

Evaluation System

Requirements Number Percentage of Grade
Attendance/Participation 1 5
Laboratory - -
Application - -
Field Work - -
Special Course Internship - -
Quizzes/Studio Critics 3 5
Homework Assignments 3 5
Presentation - -
Project - -
Report - -
Seminar - -
Midterms Exams/Midterms Jury 2 50
Final Exam/Final Jury 1 35
Toplam 10 100
Percentage of Semester Work 65
Percentage of Final Work 35
Total 100

Course Category

Core Courses X
Major Area Courses
Supportive Courses
Media and Managment Skills Courses
Transferable Skill Courses

The Relation Between Course Learning Competencies and Program Qualifications

# Program Qualifications / Competencies Level of Contribution
1 2 3 4 5
1 An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering.
2 An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data.
3 An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs.
4 An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.
5 An ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.
6 An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.
7 An ability to communicate effectively.
8 An understanding the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context and recognition of the responsibilities for social problems.
9 Recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning.
10 Knowledge of contemporary engineering issues.
11 An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.
12 Skills in project management and recognition of international standards and methodologies
13 An ability to make methodological scientific research.
14 An ability to produce, report and present an original or known scientific body of knowledge.
15 An ability to defend an originally produced idea.

ECTS/Workload Table

Activities Number Duration (Hours) Total Workload
Course Hours (Including Exam Week: 16 x Total Hours) 16 3 48
Special Course Internship
Field Work
Study Hours Out of Class 16 2 32
Presentation/Seminar Prepration
Homework Assignments 3 1 3
Quizzes/Studio Critics 3 1 3
Prepration of Midterm Exams/Midterm Jury 2 12 24
Prepration of Final Exams/Final Jury 1 15 15
Total Workload 125