Locomotion (MED104) Course Detail

Course Name Course Code Season Lecture Hours Application Hours Lab Hours Credit ECTS
Locomotion MED104 6 0 1 6 0
Pre-requisite Course(s)
Course Language English
Course Type N/A
Course Level Bachelor’s Degree (First Cycle)
Mode of Delivery Distance, Face To Face
Learning and Teaching Strategies Lecture, Demonstration, Discussion, Drill and Practice, Observation Case Study.
Course Coordinator
Course Lecturer(s)
Course Assistants
Course Objectives To introduce development, structure and functions of musculoskeletal system. To explain etiology, pathology, symptoms and findings of musculoskeletal disorders. To gain knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment principles of disorders in this system.
Course Learning Outcomes The students who succeeded in this course;
  • Describes the formation of important nerve plexuses and explains the branches, process of nerve plexuses and the structures that innervated by them.
  • Describes the muscles of upper and lower limb and explains their innervations, anatomic features, starting and endpoints and functions.
  • Describes the spine muscles, and the other back muscles and explains their innervations, anatomic features, starting and endpoints and functions.
  • Describes the structural characteristics of muscle tissue and its types.
  • Explains the embryological development of muscle tissue and classifies it.
  • Explains and compares histological features of skeletal, smooth and heart muscle.
  • Describes the cells of nerve tissue, specifies histological features and functions.
  • Distinguishes myelination in the central and peripheral nervous system.
  • Describes the innervation pattern of skeletal and smooth muscles and knows the neuromuscular junction.
  • Explains the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction and understands the role of calcium for skeletal and smooth muscle contraction.
  • Describes the neuron and components of the peripheral nervous system.
  • Describes the organization of the nervous system and knows the pathways for signal transduction.
  • Explains the synapse structure.
  • Describes the synaptic cleft, chemical transduction and neurotransmitters.
  • Describes the synaptic integration.
  • Lists the infection factors in musculoskeletal system and explains their microbiological and epidemiological features.
  • Explains the generation mechanisms and protection methods of diseases caused by infectious agents.
  • Explains the specimen management and methods for microbiological diagnosis towards the infectious agents and interprets the results.
  • Explains the biochemistry of muscle and nerve tissues.
  • Explains the biochemical markers of musculoskeletal diseases.
  • Lists the common symptoms/findings of musculoskeletal system diseases and explains the descriptive diagnosis.
  • Explains the principles of medical history taking towards to musculoskeletal system and methods of physical examination.
  • Explains the methods used in diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases.
  • Describes the physiopathology, types, clinical reflection and diagnosis of pain.
  • Describes the causes and diagnosis of arthiritis and knows non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Describes the causes and diagnosis of joint and lumbar pain.
  • Lists the medications effective on musculoskeletal system and explains their mechanism of action, indications and side effects.
  • Describes the terms of disabled and rehabilitation.
  • Takes the medical history of patient who has complains about musculoskeletal system and makes physical examination.
  • Applies basic vocational skills towards the musculoskeletal system.
  • Describes the muscular tissue’s and soft tissue’s pathologies and tumors.
  • Describes the pathologies and tumors of peripheral nerves.
  • Describes the bone, bone marrow and muscle stem cells.
  • Describes the molecular basis of inheritance.
  • Describes mitochondrial inheritance and related diseases.
  • Describes gout disease and the drugs used in gout.
Course Content Muscles: general considerations, spinal nerves, introduction of musculoskeletal system, its symptoms and findings, systemic diagnosis of rheumatic diseases, soft tissue tumors, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, medications used in the treatment of gout and the other antiinflammatory drugs, basic principles of physical medicine and rehabilitation.

Weekly Subjects and Releated Preparation Studies

Week Subjects Preparation
1 Introduction to Locomotion Committee Muscles general consideration and introduction to nervous system General Structural Properties, Classification and Development of Muscle Tissue Organization and process of nervous system, conduction properties of peripheral nervous system The superficial back The suboccipital region and deep muscles of the back Synapses, types of synapse, chemical synaptic transmission Skeletal Muscle Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Neurotransmitters Biochemistry of muscle tissue Synaptic integration The innervation of smooth muscle and smooth muscle potentials The posterior aspect of the shoulder and arm The molecular structure of skeletal muscle and its neuro muscular function Lab: The superficial back and the suboccipital region and deep muscles of the back Lab: Muscle Tissue -
2 The anterior aspect of the shoulder and arm Mammary glands Bone, bone marrow and muscle stem cells Force-velocity relationship of muscle contraction and Hill's equation The molecular mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction, the types of contraction and tetanus Digestion of carbohydrates Introduction to soft tissue and adipose neoplasms Soft tissue neoplasms: Fibrohistiocytic neoplasms Anaerobic Bacteria Soft tissue neoplasms of muscular origin Soft tissue neoplasms of unknown origin The Neuron and neuroglias The structure and innervation of smooth muscle Pathology of the skeletal muscle Tumors of muscular origin The flexor aspect of the forearm and the cubital fossa The innervation of skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle potentials Lab: The anterior and posterior aspects of the shoulder, arm and the mammary glands Biochemical markers of muscle-skeleton system diseases Peripheral nerve, peripheral ganglia and myelinization Aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis -
3 TBL: The axilla and the brachial plexus The contraction and relaxation mechanism of smooth muscles and latch mechanism The flexor aspect of the forearm and the cubital fossa The extensor aspect of the forearm The contraction and relaxation mechanism of smooth muscles and latch mechanism Clostridium tetani Clostridium botulinum The structure and innervation of cardiac muscle Anatomy of the hand Pathology of the peripheral nerve injury, atrpohy, neuropathy, Polyneuritis, inflammatory neuropathies Sensory physiology, sensory receptors and receptor potentials Lab: The axilla and the brachial plexus Lab: Purification and acid hydrolysis of glycogen Clostridium perfringes and other clostridium species Lab: The flexor and extensor aspects of the forearm and the cubital fossa , Anatomy of the hand Lab: Nervous Tissue Lab: Nerve conductance rate -
4 The gluteal region The lumbosacral plexus Peripheral nerve sheath tumors Pathology of Neuromuscular junction, muscle injury, atrophy, myopathies The anterior and medial aspects of the thigh The lateral and posterior aspects of the thigh and the popliteal fossa Case Discussion: Claude-Bernard on curare Somatic sensation - touch and position Regulation of glycolysis and energetics Somatic sensation - pain and thermal sensation Gluconeogenesis Reciprocal regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Lab: The gluteal region and lateral and posterior aspects of the thigh and popliteal fossa Lab: Cell Division, mitosis Lab: The anterior, medial of the thigh and popliteal fossa -
5 The lateral and anterior aspects of the leg Other anaerobic bacilli and cocci Pentose phosphate pathway Utilization of other carbohydrates through glycolytic pathway Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis The posterior aspect of the leg Anatomy of the foot Sectional and clinical anatomy Biochemistry of nervous tissue Citric acid cycle and its regulation Oxidative Phosphorylation and ATP Synthesis Lab: The lateral, anterior and posterior aspects of the leg and Anatomy of the foot Lab: Peripheral nerve diseases and muscle -
6 Exam preparation and General exam -


Course Book 1. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (14th Edition); Bertram G. Katzung,‎ Anthony J. Trevor; McGraw-Hill, 2018.
2. Braddom's Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (5th Edition); David X. Cifu MD; Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2016.
3. Gray’s Anatomy for Students (3rd Edition); Richard L. Drake, A. Wayne Vogl, Adam W. M. Mitchell; Churchill Livingston Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2015.
4. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology (13th Edition); John E. Hall; Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2016.
5. Histology and Cell Biology: An Introduction to Pathology (4th Edition); Abraham L. Kierszenbaum, Laura L. Tres; Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2015.
6. Medical Microbiology (7th Edition); Patrick Murray, Ken Rosenthal, Michael Pfaller; Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2013.
7. Molecular and Cellular Biophysics; Meyer B. Jackson; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006.
8. Rheumatology Textbook (5th Edition); Marc Hochberg, Alan J. Silman, Joseph Smolen, Michael Weinblatt, Michael Weisman; Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2011.
9. Robbins Basic Pathology (10th Edition); Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, Jon C. Aster; Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, 2018.
10. The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (10th Edition); Keith L. Moore, T. V. N. Persaud, Mark G. Torchia; Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2015.
11. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations (7th Edition); Thomas M. Devlin; John Wiley & Sons, 2010
12. Cell and molecular biology (2th edition); Nalini Chandar, PhD, Susan Viselli, PhD, Lipincot Wiliams & Wilkins, 2019.
13. Molecular cell biology (8th edition); Harvey Lodish, W.H.Freeman & Co Ltd, 2016.
14. Molecular biology of the cell (6th edition); Bruce Alberts, W. W. Norton & Company,2015.
15. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology, 28e, 2019, McGraw-Hill Education
16. Medical Microbiology 8th Edition . Murray . Rosenthal, . Pfaller, ,2016
17. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 9th Edition, Bennett, JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ. Elsevier, 2019
18. Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 5e, Abbas, Lichmann, Pillai, Elsevier, 2016
19. Gray’s Anatomy. Editor: Susan Standring, 41st Edition, 2015, Elsevier
20. Moore Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Authors: Keith L. Moore, Anne M. R. Agur, Arthur F. Dalley. 7th Edition, 2013, Lippincott Williams Wilkins
21. Sobotta Atlas of Human Anatomy. Musculoskeletal system, internal organs, head, neck, neuroanatomy by Friedrich Paulsen, Jens Waschke, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch (Translator), Thomas Klonisch (Translator). 15th Edition, 2013, Urban and Fischer, Elsevier
22. Atlas of Human Anatomy (Netter Basic Science). Author: Frank H. Netter. 7th Edition, 2019, Elsevier
23. Medical Physiology 3rd Edition by Boron MD PhD, Walter F, Boulpaep MD, Emile L. (2017)
24. Physiology 6th Edition by Costanzo PhD, Linda S. (2017)
25. Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition (Principles of Neural Science (Kandel)) 5th Edition by Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessell, Steven A. Siegelbaum, A. J. Hudspeth. (2013)

Evaluation System

Requirements Number Percentage of Grade
Attendance/Participation 15 2
Laboratory 13 13
Application - -
Field Work - -
Special Course Internship - -
Quizzes/Studio Critics - -
Homework Assignments - -
Presentation - -
Project - -
Report - -
Seminar - -
Midterms Exams/Midterms Jury - -
Final Exam/Final Jury 1 85
Toplam 29 100
Percentage of Semester Work 15
Percentage of Final Work 85
Total 100

Course Category

Core Courses X
Major Area Courses
Supportive Courses
Media and Managment Skills Courses
Transferable Skill Courses

The Relation Between Course Learning Competencies and Program Qualifications

# Program Qualifications / Competencies Level of Contribution
1 2 3 4 5
1 Integrates and utilizes the information, skills, and approaches obtained from basic, clinical, and medical sciences, behavioral sciences, and social sciences when offering healthcare services. X
2 Offers healthcare services to patients with a biopsychosocial approach where the sociodemographic and sociocultural backgrounds of these individuals are taken into consideration, focusing on the universal human values, ethical principles, and professional duties; without exercising discrimination on the basis of language, religion, race, or sex. X
3 Aims to protect, improve, and develop individual and public health when offering healthcare services. X
4 Performs the necessary studies in sustaining and improving health, taking into the individual, public, social, and environmental factors to affect it. X
5 Trains healthy individuals/ patients, their relatives, and other healthcare workers in healthcare upon determining the features, requirements, and expectations of their target audience. X
6 Exercises a safe, rational, and effective approach in the procedures of prevention, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation; while offering healthcare services. X
7 Implements interventional and/or non-interventional practices in a way that is safe and effective for patients during the procedures of diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation. X
8 Offers healthcare services taking into account the health and safety of patients and employees. X
9 Takes the regional and global changes in physical and socioeconomic settings to affect health, as well as the changes in the individual features and behaviors of patients referring to them into account, while offering healthcare. X
10 Takes the good medical practices into account while performing their duties. X
11 Undertakes the tasks and duties within the framework of their professional ethical rules, as well as their legal rights and duties. X
12 Stands for the improvements in the manner in which healthcare services are offered, taking into account the concepts of social reliability and social duty, in an effort to protect and improve individual and public health. X
13 Evaluates the effects of health policies and healthcare practices on public health indicators, and, where required, amends their evaluation on the grounds of scientific and social needs; in an effort to help improve the quality of healthcare services. X
14 Leads their healthcare team while offering healthcare services, in a participative, and collaborative manner. X
15 Establishes positive relationships within their healthcare team; and where needed, easily adapts to various positions among their team. X
16 Exercises effective communication with patients, the relatives of patients, healthcare professionals, and groups from other professions, as well as institutions and organizations. X
17 Plans and conducts scientific studies on the society to which they serve, and use the results of these, or those from other studies, to benefit the society. X
18 Accesses the current literature on their profession, and evaluates them with a critical approach. X
19 Chooses the correct sources of learning to improve the healthcare services that they offer, and regulates their own learning process. X
20 Demonstrates the skills of obtaining and evaluating new information, integrating newer pieces of information with their current ones, as well as adapting to changing conditions throughout their professional life. X

ECTS/Workload Table

Activities Number Duration (Hours) Total Workload
Course Hours (Including Exam Week: 16 x Total Hours) 6 16 96
Laboratory 6 4 24
Special Course Internship
Field Work
Study Hours Out of Class 6 7 42
Presentation/Seminar Prepration
Homework Assignments
Quizzes/Studio Critics
Prepration of Midterm Exams/Midterm Jury
Prepration of Final Exams/Final Jury 6 6 36
Total Workload 198