ECTS - - Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Compulsory Departmental Courses
CHE104 - General Chemistry (3 + 2) 4.5
Kinetic theory, chemical equilibrium, basic concepts of acids and bases, neutralization reactions, buffer solutions, thermochemistry, laws of thermodynamics, electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry, chemistry of nonmetals and transition metals, chemistry of life.
ENG101 - English For Academic Purposes I (4 + 0) 3.5
English language skills, especially academic skills, such as reading comprehension, vocabulary building and critical analysis of texts; listening and note-taking, class discussions, presentations, writing, research assignments and use of technology.
ENG102 - English for Academic Purposes II (4 + 0) 3.5
Academic skills such as reading comprehension, class discussions, use of academic vocabulary and critical analysis of texts; research assignments and review of the English language structure; skills such as listening and note-taking, analysis of written products, writing, portfolio keeping, presentation and use of technology.
ENG201 - English for Academic Purposes III (3 + 0) 3
Advanced reading and writing skills, applying critical reading skills and strategies, identifying the organization of a reading text, main ideas of the texts, and the author?s main purpose, summarizing a given text, outlining and writing an argumentative essay.
ENG202 - English for Academic Purposes IV (3 + 0) 3
Preparing and writing research reports and delivering effective oral/written informative and persuasive presentations; gathering information, organizing data, outlining, using appropriate techniques in presentation and delivering for a maximum impact, using visual aids and citation effectively.
ENG301 - English for Occupational Purposes I (3 + 0) 3
Job-related communication skills;the functions such as describing relationships at work,discussing performance reviews and giving feedback,discussing plans and arrangements,using social media for professional communication,discussing on recruitment tests and job interviews,presenting a service or product,writing reviews on websites
ENG302 - English for Occupational Purposes II (3 + 0) 3
More detailed job-related communication skills;describing and organising meetings,developing communicational styles in various cultural settings,handling mistakes and apologizing,getting familiar with marketing styles and advertising,deciding how to adapt and market a product in different countries,
HIST111 - Principles of Atatürk and History of Turkish Revolution I (in English) (2 + 0) 2
French Revolution; structure and geopolitic positioning of Ottoman Empire, reasons of its decline; Westernization movements, First and Second Constitutional Monarchy declarations; Libya and Balkan wars; First World War; period before the War of Independence, congresses, National Pact, establishment of Turkish Grand National Assembly.
HIST112 - Principles of Atatürk and History of Turkish Revolution II (in English) (2 + 0) 2
War of Independence; Lausanne Treaty; declaration of the Republic; removal of sultanic rule and caliphate; Atatürk`s revolutions; establishment of national economy; Second World War, before and after; Turkish Republic after 1960.
KRY111 - Career Planning (1 + 0) 1
Being a student at Atilim University, Student-centered programs at Atilim University, Faculty, Department presentations, Career Planning and Coop Program, Erasmus, CV writing types, Interview techniques, Effective Communication and presentation techniques, Intelligence and Personality
MATE103 - Introduction to Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and Materials Industry (2 + 0) 2
Materials engineering and materials industry in Turkey; the role of materials in modern society, how materials affect human civilization; the relationship between material structures, material properties and material processing.
MATE201 - Fundamentals of Materials Engineering (3 + 0) 5
Classification of materials, atomic bonding in solids, structure of crystalline materials, crystal systems, imperfections in crystalline solids, introduction to diffusion in solids, phase equilibria in unary and binary systems, binary phase diagrams, introduction to phase transformations, introduction to heat treatment of metallic alloys, thermal
MATE202 - Mechanical Behavior and Testing of Materials (3 + 2) 6.5
Introduction to properties of solid materials; mechanical behavior: elasticity, plastic deformation and fracture, failure mechanisms; fatigue, creep and corrosion, metal alloys and processing; materials selection and design; economical, environmental and societal issues.
MATE203 - Thermodynamics of Materials I (3 + 0) 5
Introduction and mathematical background; the concept of work and energy, basic definitions; the first law of thermodynamics; constant pressure processes and definition of enthalpy; thermochemistry, Hess's Law; Carnot cycle and definition of entropy, the second law of thermodynamics; the third law of thermodynamics; spontaneity based on entropy;
MATE204 - Thermodynamics of Materials II (3 + 0) 5.5
The behavior of solutions; partial molar and molar, relative partial molar and relative integral molar, excess partial molar and excess integral molar quantities; chemical potential, activity and standard states; Raoult?s Law and Henry?s Law; Gibbs-Duhem equation; phase equilibria, Gibbs free energy-composition and phase diagrams of binary systems
MATE301 - Fundamentals and Applications of Mechanical Shaping (4 + 0) 6
Macroscopic plasticity of engineering materials; yield criteria, plastic stress-strain relations, strain instability, strain rate and temperature; plasticity analysis by ideal work and stress evaluation (slab) methods; intoduction to other plasticity analysis such as upper-bound analysis, slip line field theory and finite element method;
MATE303 - Chemical Principles in Production of Metals (3 + 0) 5.5
Generalised treatment of thermodynamic and kinetic principles of pretreatment, reduction, smelting, matte smelting, hydrometallurgical and refining processes; principles and practice of production of iron, lead, zinc, copper, aluminum.
MATE311 - Ceramics and Refractory Materials (3 + 0) 5
Definitions of ceramics; raw materials; crystal structure and properties of ceramic materials; atomic bonding; phase diagrams; glass and glass-ceramics; mechanical properties and behavior; thermal properties and behavior; refractory ceramics; technical ceramics; structural ceramics.
MATE312 - Iron and Steel Production Technologies (3 + 0) 5
Preparation of iron ores, ore dressing, sintering and pelletizing, reduction of iron oxides, bosh and hearth reactions, slag formation, blast furnace operating practice, treatment of hot metal; description of BOF steelmaking process, C-O reaction, S, P, N, H in steelmaking, EAF steelmaking, alloy steelmaking, deoxidation, ladle metallurgy, principl
MATE313 - Phase Transformations and Kinetic Processes in Materials (3 + 0) 5.5
Overview of equilibrium thermodynamics, diffusion in solids; surface and interfacial energies, types of crystal interfaces and their motion, chemical reaction rate theory; nucleation and growth of phases, diffusional and diffusionless phase transformations and microstructural evolution; spinodal and order-disorder transformations; precipitation
MATE316 - Solidification Processes (2 + 2) 5.5
Basics of heat transfer, structure of liquid metals, solidification of pure metals; solidification of binary alloys, constitutional undercooling, distribution coefficient, plane front and denritic solidification, solidification of eutectic alloys, rate of solidification, micro and macrostructure development, segregation, porosity formation, solid
MATE318 - Materials Characterization (2 + 2) 5.5
Fundamentals of crystallography, properties of X-rays and electron beams, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, intensities of diffracted beam, crystal structure determinations, phase determination and other major application of x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopy, thermal analysis techniques and nanoi
MATE401 - Casting Processes and Applications (2 + 2) 6
Introduction to casting processes, permanent and expendable mold casting, molding sands and sand casting; refractoriness test; mold making practice; CO2 molding, core and mold making with organic binders, heat curing binders, core oils and core resins, methyleneblue test; gating and feeding principles and methods; cast metal alloys, production of
MATE409 - Undergraduate Research (1 + 2) 3
A capstone project supervised by a department faculty member on the applications of the knowledge gained on metallurgical/materials process and test systems design, materials modeling, material selection for specific engineering applications, feasibility analysis; legal consequences of engineering practice, health and work place safety, project management, ethics and social responsibility.
MATE410 - Material Selection in Design (2 + 2) 9
Design process, steps of design, design tools, designing against failure, materials and process selection in design; case studies in materials and process selection; quality, safety and economical considerations; quality function deployment; sequential engineering and concurrent engineering design concepts.
MATE415 - Metallic Materials and Heat Treatment (3 + 2) 6
Classification of standard steels, factors determining quality in metallic materials; effect of microstructure on mechanical properties, structural steels, HSLA steels, advanced high strength steels, die and tool steels, stainless steels, cast irons; nonferrous metals and alloys; Al, Cu, Mg, Ti and Ni alloys; heat treatment methods; solutionizing
MATE419 - Undergraduate Seminar (1 + 0) 1
Literature surveys, experimental preparations and pre studies; a work plan for the MATE 420; seminars given by senior people in the field and experts on various topics such as legal consequences of engineering practice, health and work place safety, project management, ethics and social responsibility.
MATE420 - Graduation Project (1 + 4) 9
A capstone project supervised by a department faculty member on the applications of the knowledge gained on metallurgical/materials process and test systems design, materials modeling, material selection for specific engineering applications, feasibility analysis, etc.
MATH152 - Calculus II (4 + 2) 7
Infinite series, vectors in the plane and polar coordinates, vectors and motions in space, multivariable functions and their derivatives, multiple integrals: double integrals, areas, double integrals in polar coordinates, triple integrals in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates, line integrals, Independence of path,Green's theorem.
MATH158 - Extended Calculus II (4 + 2) 7.5
Infinite series, vectors in the plane and polar coordinates, vectors and motions in space, multivariable functions and their derivatives, multiple integrals: double Integrals, areas, double integrals in polar coordinates, triple integrals in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinates, line integrals, independence of path, Green?s Theorem.
PHYS101 - General Physics I (3 + 2) 6
Measurement, motion along a straight line, vectors, motion in two and three dimensions, force and motion I, force and motion II, kinetic energy and work, potential energy and conservation of energy, center of mass and linear momentum, rotation, rolling, torque, and angular momentum, equilibrium and elasticity.
TURK401 - Turkish Language I (2 + 0) 2
Languages and their classification; history of Turkish language, its spread over the world and its place among other languages; Turkish language in the republic era; orthography; expressions; foreign words, suffixes and prefixes; punctuation; language and verbalism.
AE411 - Automotive Manufacturing Processes Using Lightweight Metals (3 + 1) 5
Advanced lightweight metals and manufacturing processes for automotive applications; metallurgy of lightweight automotive metals; engineering joining processes for metals; design for manufacturing using lightweight automotive metals.
AE426 - Design And Manufacturing Of Armored Vehicles (3 + 1) 5
Armored vehicle survivability concepts; threat types; basics of armor materials; penetration mechanics; metallic, ceramic and composites used in armor design; protection against blast; high strain-rate test methods for deriving constitutive and failure behavior of materials; specialized test methods for verification of protection levels; computational techniques used to predict structural failure.
CEAC404 - Graduation Project (1 + 4) 5
Student who are at their 7th and 8th semesters, or at their last semester will perform the research work for the Graduation Project; the topics are suggested by the faculty members, and the project is carried out under the supervision of a multidisciplinary faculty team; the students may come up with the multidisciplinary project topic themselves, and seek a team of faculty members for guidance as well.
CEAC420 - Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (3 + 0) 5
The state of the art of nanoscience, the rapid progress in experimental techniques and theoretical studies, physical principles, and a number of nanoscale measuring methods on synthesis and characterization of nanosystems, technological application of nanoscience, nanochemistry and nanobiology, nanomedicine.
CEAC423 - Polymer Science and Technology (3 + 0) 5
Historical development, basic concepts and definitions, classifications of polymers, polymerization mechanisms, chain-reaction polymerization, ionic and coordination polymerizations, step-growth polymerizations, ring-opening polymerization, chemical bonding and polymer structure, morphology, crystallinity, glass transition temperature, polymer modi
CEAC431 - Plastic Materials (3 + 0) 5
The historical development of plastic materials, the chemical nature of plastics, states of aggregation in polymers, relationship between structure and thermal and mechanical properties, relationship between structure and chemical properties, additives for plastics, principles of product design, principles of the processing of plastics.
EE445 - Introduction to Robotics (3 + 0) 5
Basic components of robotic systems: selection of coordinate frames; homogeneous transformations; solutions to kinematics equations; velocity and force/torque relations; manipulator dynamics in Lagranges formulation; digital simulation of manipulator motion; motion planning; obstacle avoidance; controller design using the computed torque method.
EE449 - Pattern Classification and Sensor Applications for Engineers (3 + 0) 5
Sensors, general information about sensor types and sensor working principles; what is a pattern; pattern classification applications; theory and methods of pattern classification; feature extraction and selection; MATLAB Classification Learner Tool; analysis and performance of classifiers; RFID basics.
ENE303 - Modeling, Analysis and Simulation (3 + 0) 5
System as an interconnection of components, component models, interconnection of components, system models: block diagrams, state equations, transfer functions, analysis of static and dynamic systems, modeling mechanical, electrical, thermal and fluid systems, simulation using SIMULINK.
ENE412 - Fuel Cell Technologies (3 + 0) 5
Introduction: fuel cell operating principles,history,types,components and systems;fuel cell thermodynamics and electrochemistry:Nernst equation,Tafel equation,cell voltage,fuel cell efficiency and losses for operational fuel cell voltages;proton exchange membrane fuel cells:components and system, construction and performance, critical issues and recent developments;fuel cell stack design and calculations; hydrogen production, storage, safety and infrastructure; balance of fuel cell power plant
ENE415 - Energy Storage Technology (3 + 0) 5
Basic concepts and definitions, energy storage systems and types, chemical energy storage, batteries and battery types, thermal energy storage methods, thermal energy storage and solar energy, sensible thermal energy storage, latent thermal energy storage, phase change materials, stratification in sensible heat storage systems, modeling of latent h
ENE430 - Energy Sytems in Buildings (3 + 0) 5
Building structure, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, the calculation of heat loss and insulation surfaces, water, fuel and electricity consumption in buildings, the national andinternational standards and regulations on energy efficiency in buildings.
IE314 - Project Management (3 + 0) 5
Elements and phases of project management; functions (planning, staffing, scheduling, monitoring, and control) and techniques (CPM, PERT, etc.) of project management; software tools for project management; project cost control and time/resource management; leadership styles, conflict and risk management.
IE322 - Industrial Engineering Practices in Energy Sector (3 + 0) 5
The impact of energy in today?s world; principles of energy planning and utilization; the drives of energy supply and demand; the role of an engineer in energy industries for management, resource planning and utilization; sustainability as a driving force for energy planning; common concepts in energy management; a paradigm of decision making: conventional versus new energy resources including nuclear and renewable energy; economical evaluation of energy investments,
IE428 - Introduction to Systems Engineering (3 + 0) 5
History of technology, determining the real design problem, generating innovative alternatives, and selecting an effective solution; systematic thinking and systematic approach; models and strategies for purposeful activities; decision making in design.
IE443 - Occupational Health and Safety (3 + 0) 5
Basic information on occupational health and safety, principles and legislations, occupational health and safety requirements to be applied in the workplace, occupational accidents, risk assessment and occupational audits; a proactive approach to occupational health and safety.
ISE432 - Innovation and Entrepreneurship in IT (3 + 0) 5
Introduction to entrepreneurship, recognizing opportunities and generating ideas, feasibility analysis, developing an effective business model, industry and competitor analysis, writing a business plan, preparing the proper ethical and legal foundation, assessing a new venture?s financial strength and viability, building a new-venture team, working with disciplinary teams, working with interdisciplinary teams, getting financing or funding.
MATE441 - Casting Processes and Applications (2 + 2) 5
Molding sands and sand casting; refractoriness test; mold making practice; CO2 molding, core and mold making with organic binders, heat curing binders, core oils and core resins, methyleneblue test; production of cast irons; inoculation, chill testing of cast iron, casting of nonferrous metals and alloys; solidification simulation, rapid prototyping and 3D printing applications in casting production.
MATE445 - Heat Treatment and Surface Hardening of Materials (2 + 2) 5
Importance of heat treatment of metallic materials; heat treatment furnaces and atmospheres; solutionizing and austenization; effects of rate of cooling; quenching and tempering; age-hardening, precipitation hardening, case hardening methods, quality control.
MATE458 - Materials for Catalysis and Fuel Cells (3 + 0) 5
Fundamentals of catalysis and catalytic reactors; catalyst synthesis methods; properties of catalytic materials and basics characterization methods; catalyst structure activity relationship fundamentals of electro-catalysis, photo catalysis, different types of fuel cells, and materials used for these applications; existing technology applications; future trends and emerging technologies
MATE470 - Introduction to Tissue Engineering (3 + 0) 5
Introduction and the important terminology and concepts of tissue engineering, cells for tissue engineering, biomaterials for tissue engineering, tissue fabrication technology, vascularization of artificial tissue, bioreactors for tissue engineering.
MATE504 - Materials Physics & Chemistry (3 + 0) 5
Physical properties of a wide range of materials from the electronic and atomic point of view. The bonding and structure of materials will be placed in context of quantum mechanics and band theory; and the electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties will be emphasized
MATE505 - Structure of Materials (3 + 0) 5
Atomic arrangements in crystalline and non-crystalline materials. Crystallography, kinematic, and dynamical theories of diffraction, applications to x-rays, electrons and neutrons. Interpretation of diffraction patterns and intensity distributions, application to scattering in perfect and imperfect crystals, and amorphous materials. Continuum desc
MATE506 - Advanced Microscopy Tecniques (3 + 0) 5
Scanning electron microscope and its modes of operation, generation of X-rays in SEM, EDS, WDS, stereology, statistical analysis, fundamentals of digital imaging and image analysis, measurement of structural gradients, grain size, particle size and shape, spacing, structure-property relations.
MATE508 - Kinetics, Phase Transformations & Transport (3 + 0) 5
Fundamentals of phase change, diffusion, heat transport, nucleation, and growth applied to solidification; ordering, spinodal decomposition, coarsening, reactions, massive transformations, diffusion-limited transformations and glass transitions
MATE516 - Materials for Energy Technologies (3 + 0) 5
Materials aspects of energy collection, conversion, storage, and delivery. Photovoltaic, nuclear, solar, and thermoelectric materials. Fuel cells and battery technologies. Low density structural materials for weight savings. Hydrogen storage materials
MATE520 - Materials Processing During Casting (3 + 0) 5
Solidification Processes; Casting Hydrodynamics; Inclusion Control in Gating Systems; Heat Transport in Component and Continuous Casting, ESR process, Near Net Shape and Spray Casting; Structure Formation; Cooling Curves; Dendrite Structure and Dendrite Growth; Microsegregation and Macrosegregation in Alloys; Solidification and Cooling Shrinkage
MATE528 - Welding Metallurgy & Technology (3 + 0) 5
Basic welding processes (gas, arc, laser-beam and electron-beam welding). Metallurgy of welding. Weld metal solidification (grain structure, subgrain structure, microsegregation, macrosegregation, porosity, inclusions and cracking). Heat-affected zone (loss of strength, embrittlement and cracking in work-hardened materials, precipitation-hardening
MATE532 - Texture and Anisotropy (3 + 0) 5
Single- and poly-crystal properties, crystal systems and symmetry, application of diffraction to determine texture, Kikuchi diffraction pattern, collecting-indexing-evaluation of diffraction patterns, orientation distribution function, typical textures observed in metals, texture development due to solidification, deformation, recrystallization,
MATE535 - Integrated Iron and Steel Plants (3 + 0) 5
Fundamentals of iron and steelmaking. Review of basic principles of blast furnace, pretreatment of hot metal, oxygen steelmaking processes, ladle refining & vacuum degassing, tundish operations and continuous casting processes. Steel plant refractories. Alloying elements in continuously cast steel products. Stainless steel production
MATE536 - Developments in Steelmaking Technologies (3 + 0) 5
Review of BOF steelmaking and secondary metallurgical processes. Recent developments in steelmaking technologies: Operations conducted at the converter, at the ladle furnace, at the vacuum degasser, at the tundish and at the continuous casting mould, etc. in relation to steel cleanliness as well as process improvement and production costs
MATE550 - Characterization Methods of Biomaterials (3 + 0) 5
Introduction to material characterization, thermal analysis and mechanical analysis, assays for extent of degradation, introduction to surface characterization, assays for protein type and amount, assays to determine effects of cell-material interactions, in vitro and in vivo assays for inflammatory response, assays for immune response, thrombosis
MATE555 - Quality Management Systems in Materials Industry (3 + 0) 5
Application of the concepts and tools of total quality to develop, implement, and maintain an effective quality assurance system in a materials manufacturing or service organization. Documentation development and team-based strategies for continuous improvement, using the ISO 9001 Standard as a basis for quality system requirements. Basic elements
MATE560 - Tribology (3 + 0) 5
Characterization of surfaces, interaction of surfaces, theories of contact mechanics, fundamentals of friction, fundamentals of lubrication, types of wear, measurement of wear, tribology of engineering materials,tribology of machinery and vehicle components, tool wear and lubricants in metal cutting and shaping, tribology of hip and knee joint rep
MATE565 - Coatings and Thin Films (3 + 0) 5
Surface coating methods: Gaseous, solution and molten state deposition processes, fundamentals of vacuum technology, principles of physical and chemical vapor deposition, electrochemical deposition, origins of film stress, characterization of coatings, tribology of coatings, tool and die coatings, diamond and diamond-like carbon coatings
ME488 - Production Design and Prototyping (1 + 4) 5
Introduction to basic mechanical concepts,mechanical behavior of basic structural elements;introduction to basic materials science and basic manufacturing methods,introduction to mechanical and physical properties of materials;introduction to basic manufacturing processes and casting and material forming; basic design factors(line,figure,color,material,texture,design field,form,value in lighting), ergonomics/anthropometry;meaning in design;design project development by drawing and prototyping.
MECE422 - Multidisciplinary Engineering Design (2 + 2) 5
Design process and methodology; identification of engineering disciplines, features and importance of multidisciplinary engineering design; systems engineering; need identification and assessment, problem definition; creativity and idea generation; methods and tools of functional/physical/task decomposition; design representation techniques, conceptual modeling of energy, information and material flow in technical systems; idea selection, decision schemes; product architecture
MFGE405 - Rapid Prototyping (3 + 0) 5
Rapid prototyping technologies, CAD models suitable for automated fabrication, secondary processing, additive manufacturing technologies, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, laminated object manufacturing, selective laser sintering, direct metal laser sintering, casting processes for rapid prototyping, investment casting, rapid tooling, reverse engineering.
MFGE420 - Project Management in Manufacturing (3 + 0) 5
Project management standards;project,portfolio,program and operation management concepts; managing participation,teamwork, and conflict;need identification and assessment,problem definition; creativity and idea generation;methods and tools of functional/physical/task decomposition;mind mapping;planning methods; cost estimation and budgeting;time management and scheduling;project quality management;resource allocation; project risk management techniques; project execution, monitoringtechniques
MFGE432 - Polymer Processing (3 + 0) 5
Introduction to hydrocarbons and macromolecular structures, homopolymers, copolymers, elastomers, blends and thermosets, morphology of polymers, semicrystalline and amorhous states, polymer additives, mechanical properties, differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometry, rheological properties, non Newtonian flow, viscoelasticity, melt flow index and rheometers, melting and mixing; die forming, extrusion based processes, molding processes, manufacture of tires and other rubber products.
MFGE433 - Residual Stresses (3 + 0) 5
Residual stresses, measurement techniques, sources of residual stresses, development of residual stresses based on the manufacturing method, effect of residual stresses on subsequent manufacturing processes, effect of residual stresses on service performance and failure.
MFGE434 - Introduction to Distortion Engineering (3 + 0) 5
Distortion, distortion potential, distortion potential carriers, compensation potential, production step based solutions, intelligent process chain design, predictive methods, use of in-situ measurement techniques and adaptive process control.
MFGE478 - Production Plant Design (3 + 0) 5
Introduction, fundamantals of design and CAD, manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM, FMS, CIM), market survey and plant location, plant layout, process analysis, quantity and quality planning and controlling for production, process and machine selection, materials handling, storage types, safety regulations, maintenance, environmental factors, research an
MFGE482 - Introduction to CAD/CAM (2 + 1) 5
Introduction to CAD,overview of geometric modeling techniques (wireframes, boundary representation, constructive solid geometry and hybrid modelers), parametric and variation modeling, parametric modeling of curves and surfaces (Bezier, B-spline and NURBS), introduction to CAM, CNC part programming,machining strategies, cutting tool selection, tool path generation, post-processing.
SE375 - 3D Modeling, Animation and Game Design (2 + 2) 5
Introduction to modeling bases, an overview of the design of the model, selection of the appropriate modeling technique; transforming the model into simulation and animation; overview of simulation and physics engine; control of model and animation with peripherals; overview of peripherals; interactive project construction with the selection of appropriate peripherals; 3D modeling for 3D printers; artificial organ design with 3D printers; industrial product design with 3D printers;
SE426 - Emerging Technologies (2 + 2) 5
What is an "Emerging Technology", disruptive technologies; identification of disruptive technologies; the 3D printing revolution; the evolution of technology; the nature o innovation; combination and structure; phenomena, domains and problem-solving; origin of technologies; technological revolution; economic revolution; forecasting.