ECTS - Translation and Interpretation

Compulsory Departmental Courses

ETI101 - English Writing Skills I (3 + 0) 5

Paragraph writing; different forms of essay writing such as narrative, descriptive, process, cause and effect, comparison and contrast; theoretical information to avoid faulty and illogical sentence construction, disorganised and incomplete paragraphs.

ETI102 - English Writing Skills II (3 + 0) 6

Information on the purpose/function of a piece of writing; discourse markers appropriate to each genre; theoretical information to avoid faulty and illogical sentence construction, disorganized and incomplete paragraphs; different writing techniques for special purposes such as business letters and CV.

ETI105 - Linguistics and Translation (3 + 0) 5

Principal schools of linguistics in the 20th century; basic concepts, principles, methods and branches of linguistics with their fields of application; associations with other relevant disciplines and specifically for translators.

ETI106 - Current Issues (3 + 0) 5

Social, economic, and political issues in the national and international agenda; hot material depending on the current affairs in the world; domain specific terminology.

ETI107 - Spoken English I (3 + 0) 5

Formal and informal speech situations; speech presentation, debates; theory of communication, functions of communication; basics of outlining and organising a speech and talking about timely topics and expressing opinion.

ETI110 - Research Techniques (2 + 0) 5

Argumentation and synthesizing of information; a set of process-based writing activities based on the academic writing theory; citing information (quoting, paraphrasing, summarising) in APA format.

ETI112 - Spoken English II (3 + 0) 5

Theory of communication event, functions of communication and dynamics of speech; basics of outlining and organising a speech; persuasive and argumentative speeches; group discussions and debates.

ETI151 - Text Studies for Translation (3 + 0) 6

Theoretical background information on various concepts including translation, text types, etc.; discussion of these concepts; applying theoretical analysis on different text types such as informative, expressive and operative.

ETI200 - Introduction to Translation (2 + 2) 6

Discourse, register, context, skopos and commissioning in various text types. Step by step introduction to the practice of translation in informative and operative texts

ETI203 - Language Use in Various Fields I (2 + 2) 5

Text types; language use in various fields; terminology-based studies.

ETI205 - Discourse Analysis (3 + 0) 6

Critical and systematic discourse analysis; elements that determine various uses of discourse; form, content and style; speech act theory; seven standards of textuality.

ETI206 - International Politics (3 + 0) 5

UN General Assembly discussion topics; discussion of political agenda and issues of UN Member States; UN General Assembly discussion simulations; Model UN discussion simulations.

ETI209 - European Culture and Institutions (3 + 0) 5

European culture, history and civilization beginning from ancient times until 21st century; concepts such as democracy, human rights, enlightenment, Renaissance, Reform.

ETI211 - Listening Comprehension and Oral Presentation I (2 + 2) 5

Listening activities for translation and interpretation students; famous and current speeches; speeches on various topics such as international relations, European Union, British culture, education system, etc.

ETI212 - Listening Comprehension and Oral Presentation II (2 + 2) 5

General listening skills on topics such as politics, diplomacy, technical issues; concentration and note-taking skills for various formal and informal speeches.

ETI220 - Language Use in Various Fields II (3 + 0) 5

Text types; language use in various fields; terminology-based studies, translation activities.

ETI303 - Translation of Texts on Social Sciences (2 + 2) 5

Translating social sciences texts such as sociology, psychology, history, culture, etc; domain-specific terminological study.

ETI307 - Sight Translation (2 + 2) 5

Basic sight translation skills; exercises with paraphrasing, chunking; good speaking skills; exercises with complex sight translation texts.

ETI308 - Translation of Medical Texts (2 + 2) 6

All types of medical texts containing grammatical, conceptual domain-specific terminology and their translations.

ETI310 - Communication and Media Translation (2 + 2) 5

Newspaper articles, leads, headlines, pyramid and inverted pyramid models and their translation activities; history of journalism; emerging news media and technology.

ETI311 - Note Taking (2 + 2) 5

Rozan note-taking techniques; original speeches about current affairs; visual and audio materials.

ETI312 - Publishing and Editing (3 + 0) 5

Analysis and practice of editing, grammar, punctuation in literary and non-literary translated texts.

ETI317 - Introduction to Interpreting I (2 + 2) 5

Basic interpreting skills; active listening skills; paraphrasing, memory and retention skills, etc.; short consecutive interpreting exercises.

ETI318 - Introduction to Interpreting II (2 + 2) 5

Fundamental interpreting skills; active listening and note-taking skills; consecutive and on-sight interpreting exercises; memory and retention skills, etc.

ETI319 - Translation Theory (3 + 0) 6

The science of translation; prescriptive translation theories; descriptive translation studies; functional and communicative approaches to translation; post-colonial theories.

ETI402 - Translation Criticism (2 + 0) 6

Translation criticism; shifts of expression; acceptability; adequacy; translational loss and gain, Descriptive Translation Studies; Van den Broeck's model.

ETI409 - Translation of Texts on Law and International Affairs (3 + 2) 6

Concepts and language of law and international relations; translation of texts on law and international relations; different types of legal and international relations texts such as contracts, power of attorney, resolutions and recommendations.

ETI410 - Translation Traineeship (1 + 2) 6

Minimum 20 working days of traineeship; traineeship file; translator's responsibilities and rights.

ETI411 - Consecutive Interpreting (2 + 2) 5

Note-taking skills, active listening exercises, consecutive interpreting exercises

ETI412 - European Union Studies and Translation (2 + 2) 6

Texts regarding relations with the EU; the nature and characteristics of the acquis communautaire; the sources of difficulty in translation of EU texts; EU terminology.

ETI416 - Translation of Texts on Economics and Commerce (3 + 0) 6

Format, style and expression in the texts concerning economics, commerce and banking; sample translations, vocabulary study and analysis of the economic language.

Elective Courses

ART201 - Introduction to Photography (3 + 0) 4

Definition of photography and the photographer, the uses of photography in life, camera and its parts (aperture, iso, shutter, lens), light and its use in photography, composition rules in photography, the works of photographers from the world and Turkey.

ART202 - Cartoon (3 + 0) 4

Basic information on cartoon; drawing techniques using simple rules; humor; career-oriented cartoon work.

ART221 - Annotated History of Music (3 + 0) 4

The evolution of music in history of humanity; music in the process of becoming an art, the authencities of music; the historical analysis of music, information exchange as well as the main distinctions between art and other cultural domains.

ART222 - History of Jazz (3 + 0) 4

The history of music before 1900`s; Blues and Ragtime music genres; the impacts of musical, social and cultural structures of jazz music in New Orleans before its emergence in the region; main jazz movements starting from the very first Dixieland music to Fusion jazz movement today.

ART223 - Performing Jazz (3 + 0) 4

Human voice in terms of its anatomy, physiology and its techniques.

ART224 - History of Argentine Tango (3 + 0) 4

Where does the tango come from; tango-culture relationship; the origin and the evolution of Argentine tango; spreading of the dance to Europe and the world; the effects of tango on economic crisis and political changes in the world.

ART225 - Introduction to Classical Guitar (3 + 0) 4

Fundamentals of music; notes, rhythm and fundamental music vocabulary; notes on the guitar, diagrams.

ART235 - Polyphonic Chorus (3 + 0) 4

In this course, correct breathing, voice production and dissemination are intended to gain the right skills.It aims to gain the habit of synchronized voice and choral works.

ART251 - Watercolour Painting (3 + 0) 4

Basic knowledge of watercolour painting art and its history; watercolour techniques, tools and materials; demonstration of some real watercolour painting samples; basic principles and practice of painting techniques.

ART252 - Free Ceramic Forming (3 + 0) 4

The ceramic clay; using clay for freehand forming; creating unique ceramic forms without restricting the individual creativity; creating two- or three-dimensional free-form designs using the ceramic clay.

ART265 - Creativity in Business Life (3 + 0) 4

Methods of creativity; using creativity in business life; overview and critique of the sector; new approaches by means of art; innovation.

ART271 - Creative Drama (3 + 0) 4

Games and exercises designed by Viola Spolin to stimulate action, relation, spontaneity and creativity of individuals in a group setting; techniques such as warming up games, improvisations, roleplay, writing, story telling etc.

ART282 - Voice Training, Solfage, Correpetition (3 + 3) 4

Correct usage techniques of breathing, diaphragm and voice, professional singing education, excercises of developing musical ear, theoretical knowledge of musical note and rhythm, dictation (be able to writing down on paper in the form of notes and rhythm the heared sound or music), excercises of developing musical ear, working accompanied with

ART284 - Stage Management of Theater and Movie Review (3 + 0) 4

Analysing theater plays that dominated the history of theater in philosophical theme; finding the substances and determine in search of theatric space at the world theater journey, discussion of the predeterminated movies that made the breakthrough in world history within the context of Sartre/Existentialist philosophy and Spinoza/Ethica.

ART285 - Innovative Visual Narrative (3 + 0) 4

Investigation of the visual narration processes through selected examples;preperation of a research report in line with the selected type of visual narration; information about the effectiveness of the visual material or visual narrative on thinking,decision making and personal communication;evaluation;effects of innovative approaches on visual

ART286 - Simple Restoration Techniques in Artworks (3 + 0) 4

General principles and assumptions about artifact repair, simple repairs using different modern materials.

ART287 - Couple Dances (3 + 0) 4

Education of basic music and rhythm, body awareness, movement, coordination, gesture, expression and tendency for couple harmony.

ART288 - Rhetoric: Beautiful and Effective Speaking Art (3 + 0) 4

Expressing thoughts and opinions in the best, most effective and most accurate manner, speaking effectively, and persuading communities.

ART291 - Body Language and the Art of Persuasion (3 + 0) 4

Posture, mimic, gesture, a correct and accurate way of using the intonation of speech; leadership skills and abilities to convince or persuade someone to accept a desired way of thinking in the business and social environment; convincing others to adopt new ideas using body language.

ART292 - Sign Language (3 + 0) 4

Developing the ability to communicate daily with hearing disabilities.

ART293 - Architectural Photography (3 + 0) 4

Architectural dynamics in art of photography; photography techniques that are compatible with structures; equipment knowledge and usage techniques.

ART294 - Stage Makeup (3 + 0) 4

Plastic makeup; form working on model; coloration of silicon mold and placing on human face.

CHIN201 - Chinese I (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various topics such as countries, nationalities, jobs, family, feelings, food and drink, colors and clothes and daily routines

CHIN202 - Chinese II (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various themes such as transport, travel, dates, holidays, money, and shopping.

CHIN301 - Chinese III (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as occupations, hobbies, countries, and functions such as asking for and giving information, offering and responding.

CHIN302 - Chinese IV (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements.

ECON443 - Entrepreneurship (3 + 0) 6

The nature and importance of entrepreneurship, history of entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial and intrapreneurial mind, creativity, innovation and the business idea, marketing and financial planning, franchising, entrepreneurial strategy and strategic management in operations, and presentation to business angels.

ETI-AE2FA1 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 5

ETI-AE2SP1 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 5

ETI-AE3SP1 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 5

ETI-AE4FA1 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 5

ETI-AE4FA2 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 5

ETI-AE4FA3 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 7

ETI-AE4SP1 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 5

ETI-AE4SP2 - Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 5

ETI-GE1FA1 - Non-Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 4

ETI-GE1SP1 - Non-Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 4

ETI-GE2FA1 - Non-Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 4

ETI-GE2SP1 - Non-Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 4

ETI-GE3FA1 - Non-Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 4

ETI-GE3SP1 - Non-Departmental Elective (0 + 0) 4

ETI201 - Media and Journalism (3 + 0) 5

The concept, importance and subject matters of media and journalism; inverted pyramid structure; headline grammar and vocabulary; writing effective leads using 5W1H rule; journalistic terminology; text versus image in media.

ETI218 - International Institutions (3 + 0) 5

General information about the structure, functions, bodies/institutions and operation mechanisms of the international organizations such as UN, the Council of Europe, EU, OSCE, NATO, OECD, WTO, the International Criminal Court, the World Intellectual Property Organisation and etc. 

ETI221 - Translation as a Profession (3 + 0) 5

Legal and financial liabilities of a translator, privacy and ethical issues regarding the profession and different working models (establishing their own businesses or working as a freelance translator).

ETI224 - Introduction to Translation and Localization (3 + 0) 5

The essentials of localization, the contents of localization (user manuals, IT software, websites), the relationship between translation and localization, the effect of globalization on localization, translation tools used in localization (CAT tools, translation memories, termbases, dictionaries, etc.), roles (language expert, proofreader, etc.), and workflow.

ETI252 - Grammar for Translation / Interpretation Purposes (3 + 0) 5

Advanced level English grammar; vocabulary; reading comprehension; exercises on oral presentation and writing skills.

ETI314 - Use of Computer Technologies in Translation (2 + 2) 5

Computer Aided Translation (CAT) tools; Terminology Management Systems (TMS); local and Internet based terminological databases (termbases); project management packages; quality assurance systems.

ETI322 - Types of Translation and Localization (3 + 0) 5

Texts produced in different fields such as medicine, law, or technical; texts produced in different media and formats such as websites, online documents, desktop publishing, e-commerce and e-learning.

ETI403 - Localization Project Management (3 + 0) 5

Project management, communication tools and strategies, concepts of time and cost, team management, project management tools, risk management and quality control.

ETI407 - Literature and Translation I (2 + 0) 5

Theoretical articles on literature and literary translation such as Bassnett's, Aksoy's and Lefevere's; translation of novel and short story.

ETI408 - Literature and Translation II (2 + 0) 5

Translation of poems, short stories and plays; genre and style analysis with appropriate translation strategies.

ETI413 - Simultaneous Interpreting (3 + 0) 5

Simultaneous interpreting of various speeches on different topics; booth manners; stress management during simultaneous interpreting; coping strategies for simultaneous interpreting.

ETI414 - Simultaneous Conference Interpreting (3 + 0) 5

Simultaneous interpreting of 10-15 minute-longs speeches on various topics; brief history of conference interpreting in the world and Turkey; mock conference exercises; video conference practices; ethics and standards in conference interpreting.

ETI419 - General Translation I (3 + 0) 5

Translation of lengthy texts on especially specialised fields such as law, medicine, science and social sciences; domain-specific terminology study in various fields.

ETI420 - General Translation II (3 + 0) 5

Translation of lenghty and complex texts on especially specialised fields such as law, medicine, science and social sciences; domain-specific terminology study in various fields.

ETI421 - Technical Writing and Translation (3 + 0) 7

The nature of technical and scientific documents; the steps of technical translation; research and terminology studies on contemporary technical subjects; translating and editing the texts in the light of current methodologies.

ETI422 - Editing and Postediting in Localization (3 + 0) 5

Editing and proofreading; problems related to punctuation or grammar; analysis of the translated material in terms of style (suitability for the target audience, word and terminology choice, fluency, etc.), accuracy and readability.

ETI431 - Terminology Studies (2 + 0) 5

Theoretical and practical aspects of terminology studies; techniques of how to produce electronic versions of the corpus.

ETI432 - Translation for Children (2 + 0) 5

Brief history of translation of children’s literature; theoretical approaches to this type of study; problems of translation for children; translation of cartoons, advertisements for children and nursery rhymes.

ETI433 - Project Management and Localization (2 + 2) 4

The managerial and technical skills for project based work; software and other electronic media for localization and project management; mock translation company project.

ETI434 - Community Interpreting (2 + 2) 4

Concepts of community interpreting and public service interpreting; multidimensional structure of public service interpreting; examples of community interpreting practices at hospital, municipality, court etc. settings.

ETI438 - Translation of Graphic Novel and Humour (3 + 0) 5

The qualities of graphic novel and humour; history of graphic novel and humour translation in Turkey; graphic novel and humour translation; challenges of graphic novel and humour translation.

FRE201 - French I (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various topics such as countries, nationalities, jobs, family, feelings, food and drink, colors and clothes and daily routines.

FRE202 - French II (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various themes such as transport, travel, dates, holidays, money, shopping, plans, and life changes.

FRE301 - French III (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as occupations, hobbies, countries, and functions such as asking for and giving information, offering and responding.

FRE302 - French IV (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements.

FRE401 - French V (3 + 0) 4

Develop and practice more vocabulary, structure and communicative skills; reporting and passive structures; read newspapers, books, stories and talk about them.

FRE402 - French VI (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at pre-intermediate level; various themes such as celebrations, hospital procedures, visiting museums, banks, libraries, and cultural elements.

GER201 - German I (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various topics such as countries, nationalities, jobs, family, feelings, food and drink, colors and clothes and daily routines.

GER202 - German II (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various themes such as transport, travel, dates, holidays, money, and shopping.

GER301 - German III (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as occupations, hobbies, countries, and functions such as asking for and giving information, offering and responding.

GER302 - German IV (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements.

GER401 - German V (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements.

GER402 - German VI (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at pre-intermediate level; various themes such as celebrations, hospital procedures, visiting museums, banks, libraries, and cultural elements.

HUM201 - Social Responsibility Project (3 + 0) 4

Social and environmental problems; non-governmental organizations; cooperation with non-governmental organizations; team work.

HUM211 - Gender Studies and Women Rights (3 + 0) 4

Introduction; gender perceptions; woman and health; woman and politics; woman and law; modernism, gender and women rights; types of violence against women and their prevention; woman and literature; woman labor in the global economy; worklife and woman; woman and entrepreneurship; woman and environment.

HUM212 - Gender Equality (3 + 0) 4

This course focused on examine main subjects and current issues of Gender Studies by precisely taking the principle of equality and discrimination at hand, Help students follow gender studies in Turkey and across the globe and develop abilities of students to examine and generate behavioral patterns in their daily social life in a gender-mainstrea

HUM312 - Studies in Masterpieces of World Literature (3 + 0) 4

Texts selected from major works of world literature such as English, Russian and French: one novel, two short stories, two poems, one play.

HUM316 - Selections from World Literature: The Short Story (3 + 0) 4

Short stories in English selected from a variety of cultures; texts handed out by the course instructor on literary materials and on literary appreciation methods

HUM320 - Aesthetics (3 + 0) 4

Defining art, aesthetics, the beautiful and the ugly, and ethics; scrutinizing their contents; examining the place of aethetics in art and nature; discussing and comparing the views of the philosophers studied.

HUM321 - Introduction to the History of Philosophy (3 + 0) 4

A study of selected philosophers from the times of Ancient, Medieval and Modern Philosophy, 19th Century Philosophy and 20th Century Philosophy.

HUM331 - Go (3 + 0) 4

General description of the game of Go, the rules of Go, the history of Go, Go culture and ethics, Go philosophy, Go in Turkey and in the rest of the world, the opening in Go, ingame strategies in Go.

HUM360 - History of Science (3 + 0) 4

The origins and historical deveopment of modern science and scientific method; the ways of knowing the world of different cultures and societies changed over time; the relationship between scientific knowledge to other enterprises, such as art and religion; the key aspects and issues in the advancement of science from ancient world to modern ages.

IR423 - Energy Politics (3 + 0) 5

Global and regional energy topics; energy sources; energy geopolitics and energy security; Turkish energy policy and politics.

JAP201 - Japanese I (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various topics such as countries, nationalities, jobs, family, feelings, food and drink, colors and clothes and daily routines.

JAP202 - Japanese II (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various themes such as transport, travel, dates, holidays, money, shopping, plans, and life changes.

JAP301 - Japanese III (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as occupations, hobbies, countries, and functions such as asking for and giving information, offering and responding.

JAP302 - Japanese IV (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements.

KOR201 - Korean I (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at A1 level; countries, nationalities, jobs, family, feelings, food and drink, colors and clothes and daily routines.

MAN409 - Entrepreneurship (4 + 0) 5

The nature, importance and history of entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial mind, creativity, innovation and the business idea, marketing and financial planning, franchising, entrepreneurial strategy and strategic management in operations, entrepreneurship background of Turkey, changes in Turkish entrepreneurial features and activities, characteri

PR120 - Introduction Social Psychology (3 + 0) 5

Basic concepts in the major areas of social psychology; perception of people and events, attitudes and social influence; social interaction and relationships.

PR491 - Journalism I (0 + 3) 5

Definitions and the functions of the concepts and the tools of the journalism; writing texts such as news, articles and interviews; commenting on articles; creating images that will complete the texts; preparing three issues of Atılım Newspaper.

RUS201 - Russian I (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various topics such as countries, nationalities, jobs, family, feelings, food and drink, colors and clothes and daily routines.

RUS202 - Russian II (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various themes such as transport, travel, dates, holidays, money, and shopping.

RUS301 - Russian III (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as occupations, hobbies, countries, and functions such as asking for and giving information, offering and responding.

RUS302 - Russian IV (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements

RUS401 - Russian V (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at pre-intermediate level; up to date topics on newspapers, magazines, and books.

RUS402 - Russian VI (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at pre-intermediate level; up to date topics on newspapers, magazines, and books.

SPAN201 - Spanish I (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various topics such as countries, nationalities, jobs, family, feelings, food and drink, colors and clothes and daily routines.

SPAN202 - Spanish II (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at beginners level; various themes such as transport, travel, dates, holidays, money, shopping, plans, and life changes.

SPAN301 - Spanish III (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as occupations, hobbies, countries, and functions such as asking for and giving information, offering and responding.

SPAN302 - Spanish IV (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements.

SPAN401 - Spanish V (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at pre-intermediate level; up to date topics on newspapers, magazines, and books.

SPAN402 - Spanish VI (3 + 0) 4

Vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at pre-intermediate level; up to date topics on newspapers, magazines, and books.

TURK301 - Turkish III (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as occupations, hobbies, countries, and functions such as asking for and giving information, offering and responding.

TURK302 - Turkish IV (3 + 0) 4

More vocabulary, structure and communicative skills at elementary level; various themes such as travel, places, appearance, plans, health, weather, phone conversations, and cultural elements.